Dark Frozen Water

Begwns Frozen Water Weed and Bracken

Most of the time a muddy frozen puddle looks exactly just that, but very occasionally it can look as if someone has painted it. What struck me about this shallow frozen pond, high up on the Begwns, was the contrast between the dark frozen water and wind blown powdered snow.

Static weather conditions can produce transitions that appear to be quite regular with each layer of ice forming neatly beneath the last. But when weather and temperature vary night to night the effects can become extraordinarily beautiful.

Successive daytime thaws followed by night-time freezes have trapped gas bubbles and wind blown snow particles that combine with the calligraphic forms of dead bracken and grasses to make a composition that reminds me of Turner’s elemental paintings.


John Blakemore’s multiple exposures and my problem with bracken

I listened to John Blakemore’s talk at last years Meeting of Minds†† conference recently (links at the bottom of this). It was the first opportunity that I have had to listen to one of the UK’s most idiosyncratic landscape photographers talk about what motivates him to make photographs and what interests him visually.

There is much to recommend an hour spent listening to Mr Blakemore talk through his photographs and I encourage you to do so. But the main reason why I mention him here is because of his experiments with multiple exposure and my problems photographing the bracken on the Begwns successfully. Firstly the bracken: pteridium aquilinum is a vigorous and aggressive fern, spreading rapidly by means of strong underground stems or “rhizomes”. It has a wide soil tolerance, doing particularly well on deep acidic soils, but it is intolerant of waterlogged soils. Bracken is a major weed in many upland and upland margin areas, causing management problems in agriculture, forestry, conservation, and recreation†††. It is everywhere around here, covering the lower slopes of mountains and, where heather has failed to establish, across hill and moorland top as well. It is in some ways a key species and one that, like no other, transforms the character of the landscape dramatically as the seasons progress; emerging in the spring as lime green shoots amongst the grass, giving the hills an odd sort of fuzz when viewed from a distance. By mid summer the young plants have matured into metre tall dark green fronds that blanket the hills hiding hare, skylark and ewe. As summer turns the bracken begins its transformation from a mostly uniform green to hues of yellow, gold and orange, which in turn change to shades of deepest sienna as autumn turns to winter. Some, but never all, of the bracken on the Begwns is harvested for livestock bedding every year. A job now done by tractor and flail but which once was done by children with scythes. But I digress.

I have been making photographs of parts of the Begwns for a couple of years now always with a loose plan to arrive, at some point, with a pictorial essay of this little known piece of the National Trust’s estate. The many other features of the Begwns have proven to be a lot easier to photograph and I have been busy making images of those whilst struggling with the bracken, which has remained obstinately difficult; on a still day, en masse, it can look like a field of cabbages and with about as much charm. But when the wind drives through the bracken it animates the individual fronds so that they rustle and dip; as a group they appear like an undulating green sea. There is a sound, a smell, and a texture like no other. John Blakemore experimented with multiple exposure to capture the wind energy through trees and it occurred to me that I might use a similar technique to catch the dynamic nature of the bracken which is so characteristic of the Begwns landscape through the summer months.


Mr Blakemore was using a 5×4 plate camera and made up to 45 separate exposures for each sheet of film, and of course he knew what he was doing. I used a hand held Nikon D800E which has an upper limit of 10 exposures per frame with absolutely no idea of how they would turn out. I do rather like them – some are more successful than others although I am not sure why that is. I may explore this some more using a tripod and combining several frames of multiple exposures to achieve the forty plus layers of exposure. I suspect that the transitions will become subtler – softer perhaps. That I think that is for another day.

Despite its effects on other habitats, bracken can be an important habitat in its own right. It is known to support over 40 species of invertebrate; for 27 species it forms an important part of the diet. 11 are found only on bracken. Bracken can be an important breeding habitat for moorland birds, in particular whinchat. Other species which may use bracken for breeding cover include ring ouzel, hen harrier and merlin. It may also be used as cover by warblers, tree-pipits and nightjars. Reptiles and mammals can benefit from the shelter provided by bracken. In some areas bluebells and other woodland plants grow under bracken.†††

† Source: Lens Culture. John Blakemore is a master photographer and printer from Great Britain, who has been practicing his art since 1956. Renowned for his richly detailed and nuanced landscapes and still-lifes, he has influenced generations of photographers through his classes at the University of Derby as well as countless workshops. Students and fellow photographers often acknowledge that Blakemore has “enriched their lives beyond compare.” https://www.lensculture.com/articles/john-blakemore-the-stilled-gaze

†† Source: On Landscape – Meeting of Minds conference 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oa8woJC-0lg

††† Source: Scottish National Heritage Information and Advisory Note Number 24. http://www.snh.org.uk/publications/on-line/advisorynotes/24/24.htm